Research & Publications

Here you can find the results of a survey carried out in the partner countries focusing on the barriers about the basic use of TEL at higher education institutions.

1. Strategies and Support for TEL

Summary of the strategies and support information produced during the AduLeT project. Here you can find information about the Methodology, Barriers to Technology-Enhanced Learning in Higher Education and Recommendations and Strategies for TEL for each country.


2. The Group Concept Mapping (GCM) Research Methodology and Results 

What is Group Concept Mapping?
To identify barriers for implementing ICT in higher education we applied a research methodology called Group Concept Mapping (GCM).  Group Concept Mapping is similar to other well-known methods such as group discussions using sticky notes, surveys through questionnaires and classical concept mapping but also presents some distinctive characteristics. Similar to sticky notes discussion, in GCM the participants first brainstorm ideas about barriers for adopting ICT in teaching and learning, then group thematically the ideas that belong to each other. Like a questionnaire, GCM requires the participants to rate the statements on some values. As in classical concept mapping, GCM shows visually how ideas are related to each other. While GCM shares features of the methods described, this research methodology is distinctive in at least one substantial way: it objectively identifies the common understanding of the group of participants by applying some advanced statistical techniques. 
Barriers towards the use of ICT in higher education

Forty-nine higher education experienced teachers with different educational background from Finland, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain generated 87 ideas about barriers for implementing ICT in learning and teaching. Then a sub-set of 28 participants individually sorted the ideas into more general categories and rated each barrier on importance and easy/difficult to deal with.

The analysis showed the following six categories of barriers: lack of organization support; teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills; lack of time; lack of hardware and software; students’ lack of knowledge, skills and motivation; and lack of reward and recognition (see Figure 1).


Cluster Analysis

Figure 1.  Categories of barriers for implementing ICT in teaching 


Then, the analysis of the rating data provided some additional insight. Figure 2 shows the relative position of the clusters when compared to each other on the two rating values, namely, importance of the issue and easy/difficult to resolve. Some of the clusters scored high on one value but relatively low on the other. For example, ‘Lack of time’ scored very high on importance and very low on easy/difficult to handle it. In contrast, the issues ‘Teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills’, ‘Lack of  organization support’ and ‘Students’ lack of knowledge, skills’ and motivation were considered relatively easy to deal with, but not so important.

Comparison of barriers on importance and easy/difficult to handle

Figure 2. Comparison of barriers on importance and easy/difficult to handle

To see some in depth analysis of the results and explanation of the methodology you can watch the videos at:



Jokiaho, A., May, B., Specht, M., & Stoyanov, S. (2018). Barriers to using E Learning in an Advanced Way. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC), 11(1), 17-22.

Jokiaho, A., May, B., Specht, M., & Stoyanov, S. (2018). Obstacles to using E-Learning in an Advanced Way. Proceedings of The International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace 2018 (ICELW 2018), 13.-15.06.2018, Columbia University, New York, USA. 


Further publications